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    1.  您所在的位置:甘肅中公考研 > 備考資料 > 考研試題 > 2021全國碩士研究生考試試題及答案(英語一)

      2021全國碩士研究生考試試題及答案(英語一)

      發布日期:2021-05-11 19:12:00  來源:甘肅中公考研

      Section I Use of English

      Directions:

      Read the following text. Choose the best word (s) for each numbered blank and mark A, B, C or D on the ANSWER SHEET. (10 points)

      Fluid intelligence is the type of intelligence that has to do with short-term memory and the ability to think quickly, logically, and abstractly in order to solve new problems. It 1 in young adulthood, levels out for a period of time, and then 2 starts to slowly decline as we age. But 3 aging is inevitable, scientists are finding out that certain changes in brain function may not be.

      One study found that muscle loss and the 4 of body fat around the abdomen are associated with a decline in fluid intelligence. This suggests the 5 that lifestyle factors might help prevent or 6 this type of decline.

      The researchers looked at data that 7 measurements of lean muscle and abdominal fat from more than 4,000 middle-to-older-aged men and women and 8 that data to reported changes in fluid intelligence over a six-year period. They found that middle-aged people 9 higher measures of abdominal fat 10 worse on measures of fluid intelligence as the years 11 .

      For women, the association may be 12 to changes in immunity that resulted from excess abdominal fat; in men, the immune system did not appear to be 13 . It is hoped that future studies could 14 these differences and perhaps lead to different 15 for men and women.

      16 , there are steps you can 17 to help reduce abdominal fat and maintain lean muscle mass as you age in order to protect both your physical and mental 18 . The two highly recommended lifestyle approaches are maintaining or increasing your 19 of aerobic exercise and following Mediterranean-style 20 that is high in fiber and eliminates highly processed foods.

      1. [A] pauses [B] returns [C] peaks [D] fades

      2. [A] alternatively [B]formally [C]accidentally [D] generally

      3. [A] while [B] since [C] once [D] until

      4. [A] detection [B] accumulation [C] consumption [D] separation

      5. [A] possibility [B] decision [C] goal [D] requirement

      6. [A] delay [B] ensure [C] seek [D] utilize

      7. [A] modified [B] supported [C] included [D] predicted

      8. [A] devoted [B] compared [C] converted [D] applied

      9. [A] with [B] above [C] by [D] against

      10. [A] lived [B] managed [C] scored [D] played

      11. [A] ran out [B] set off [C] drew in [D] went by

      12. [A] superior [B] attributable [C] parallel [D] resistant

      13. [A] restored [B] isolated [C] involved [D] controlled

      14. [A] alter [B] spread [C] remove [D] explain

      15. [A] compensations [B] symptoms [C] demands [D] treatments

      16. [A] Likewise [B] Meanwhile [C] Therefore [D] Instead

      17. [A] change [B] watch [C] count [D] take

      18. [A] well-being [B] process [C] formation [D] coordination

      19. [A] level [B] love [C] knowledge [D] space

      20. [A] design [B] routine [C] diet [D] prescription

      1. 【答案】C(peaks)

      【解析】邏輯關系題。and then提示順承,借助slowly decline(慢慢下降)可知,C項peaks(達到最高點)符合原文邏輯關系,即流動智力在成年早期達到峰值,之后很長一段時間趨于穩定,之后隨著年齡增長,慢慢下降。本題答案為C項。

      干擾選項:A項pauses(暫停),B項returns(返回)和D項fades(逐漸消失),均不符合原文邏輯關系。

      2. 【答案】D(generally)

      【解析】語境題。比較各選項語義,A項

      alternatively(二者擇一地),B項formally(形式上地),C項accidentally(偶然地)和D項generally(通常),其中,D項generally(通常)最符合原文語義。本題答案為D項。

      3. 【答案】A(while)

      【解析】邏輯關系題。觀察選項可知,本題考查句內邏輯關系,比較aging is inevitable和scientists are finding out that … may not be可知,inevitable和may not be提示語義相反,即“衰老不可避免”,與“科學家們發現大腦功能的某些變化可能并非不可避免”二者語義相反。A項while(盡管)提示讓步,符合原文邏輯關系。本題答案為A項。

      干擾選項:B項since(由于)提示因果關系,C項once(一旦)提示條件關系,D項until(到……為止)提示順承關系,均不符合原文邏輯關系。

      4. 【答案】B(accumulation)

      【解析】邏輯關系題。and提示并列,muscle loss和the 4 of body fat around the abdomen(腹部脂肪的 4 )互相并列,借助muscle loss(肌肉流失)可知,B項accumulation(積累)符合原文邏輯關系,即,肌肉流失和腹部脂肪堆積。本題答案為B項。

      干擾選項:A項detection(偵查),C項consumption(消耗)和D項separation(分離),均不符合原文邏輯關系。

      5. 【答案】A(possibility)

      【解析】語境題。This指代上句的研究發現,本句繼續介紹研究發現。比較各選項語義,A項possibility(可能性),B項decision(決定),C項goal(目標)和D項requirement(要求),可知,A項possibility符合原文語義,即,這表明生活方式因素可能有助預防這種下降的可能性。本題答案為A項。

      6. 【答案】A(delay)

      【解析】邏輯關系題。or提示并列,借助prevent(預防)可知,A項delay(延期)符合原文邏輯關系,即預防或延遲流動智力下降。本題答案為A項。

      干擾選項:B項ensure(保證),C項seek(尋求)和D項utilize(利用),均不符合原文邏輯關系。

      7. 【答案】C(included)

      【解析】語境題。本題考查連接data(數據)和measurements(測量結果)的動詞詞義。比較各選項語義,A項modified(修改),B項supported(支持),C項included(包括)和D項predicted(預 測),可知C項included符合原文語義,即研究人員查看了包括4,000多名中老年男性和女性瘦肌肉群和腹部脂肪測量結果的數據。本題答案為C項。

      8. 【答案】B(compared)

      【解析】邏輯關系題。and提示并列,looked at data和 8 that data to reported changes互相并列,借助looked at(查看)可知,B項compared(比較)符合原文邏輯關系,且能與介詞to構成固定搭配,compare … to…(將……與……相比)。本題答案為B項。

      干擾選項:其余各項與介詞to構成固定搭配,A項devoted … to…(把……用于),C項converted … to…(把……轉化為……),D項applied … to…(把……應用于……),均不符合原文邏輯關系。

      9. 【答案】A(with)

      【解析】固定搭配題。觀察選項可知,本題考查介詞用法。比較各選項,A項with(帶有……),B項above(在……上面),C項by(通過……)和D項against(與……相反),可知,A項with連接higher measures of abdominal fat,作后置定語修飾people,符合原文語義,即,有著更高腹部脂肪的中年人。本題答案為A項。

      10. 【答案】C(scored)

      【解析】語境題。比較各選項語義,A項lived(生活),B項managed(管理),C項scored(得分)和D項played(玩耍),可知,C項scored符合原文語義,即,他們發現,有著更多腹部脂肪的中年人,在流動智力方面得分較低。本題答案為C項。

      11. 【答案】D(went by)

      【解析】固定搭配題。借助as the years(隨著年歲……),并比較各選項語義,A項ran out(用完),B項set off(出發),C項drew in(引誘)和D項went by(時間逝去),可知,D項went by符合原文語義。本題答案為D項。

      12. 【答案】B(attributable)

      【解析】語境題。結合resulted from excess abdominal fat(腹部脂肪過多所致),并比較各選項與介詞to構成的搭配,A項superior to(比……好的),B項attributable to(可歸因于……),C項parallel to(與……平行的)和D項resistant to(不受……損害的),可知,B項attributable符合原文語義,即,對于女性來說,這種關聯(腹部脂肪越高,流動智力方面的得分越低)可能要歸因于腹部脂肪過多所致的免疫力變化。本題答案為B項。

      13. 【答案】C(involved)

      【解析】邏輯關系題。For women與in men提示對比關系,借助the association may be 12 to changes in immunity(這種關聯可能 12 免疫力變化)可知,C項involved(使成為然部分,與be連用時,可理解為“與……有關”)符合原文語義,即,對男性來說,(這種關聯)似乎與免疫系統無關;且符合原文邏輯。本題答案為C項。

      干擾選項:A項restored(被恢復),B項isolated(被孤立)和D項controlled(被控制),均不符合原文邏輯關系。

      14. 【答案】D(explain)

      【解析】語境題。本題考查連接future studies和these differences的動詞語義,而these differences是指上句中男性和女性的流動智力得分,與腹部脂肪堆積所致的免疫力變化有關與無關的區別,F有研究只發現了這種區別,而背后的原因,只能寄希望于未來相關研究。D項explain(解釋)符合原文語義,即,希望未來研究能解釋這些區別。本題答案為D項。

      干擾選項:A項alter(改變),B項spread(展開)和C項remove(去掉),均不符合原文語義。

      15. 【答案】D(treatments)

      【解析】語境題。借助lead to different 15 for men and women(促成針對女性和男性的不同 15 ),并結合these differences所指的免疫力與流體智力間二者間的關聯在男性和女性中體現不同,可知,D項treatments(療法)符合原文語義,即,或許會促成針對女性和男性的不同療法。本題答案為D項。

      干擾選項:A項compensations(補償),B項symptoms(癥狀)和C項demands(要求),均不符合原文語義。

      16. 【答案】B(Meanwhile)

      【解析】邏輯關系題。觀察選項可知,本題考查句間邏輯關系。比較上句與本句發現:從內容上說,上句為對未來研究的期待,本句為目前可采取的措施(steps);從文章段落結構來說,上段為研究結論,本段為研究帶來的啟示。前后兩句呈現研究的不同方面,體現對比關系。觀察選項,B項Meanwhile(與此同時)符合原文邏輯關系,即期待未來進一步研究的同時,目前也可以采取一些措施,二者方向不同,但可同時進行。本題答案為B項。

      干擾選項:A項Likewise(同樣地)提示并列關系,C項Therefore(因此)提示因果關系,D項Instead(相反地)提示轉折關系,均不符合原文邏輯關系。

      17. 【答案】D(take)

      【解析】固定搭配題。take steps(采取措施)為固定搭配,且符合原文語義,即,您可以采取一些措施來幫助減少腹部脂肪并保持瘦肌肉群。本題答案為D項。

      干擾選項:A項change(改變),B項watch(觀察)和C項count(數),均不能與steps構成符合原文語義的固定搭配。

      18. 【答案】A(well-being)

      【解析】語境題。由protect both your physical and mental …(保護您身體和心理的……)可知,A項well-being(健康)符合原文語義,即,為了保護您的身心健康。本題答案為A項。

      干擾選項:B項process(過程),C項formation(形成)和D項coordination(協調),均不符合原文語義。

      19. 【答案】A(level)

      【解析】語境題。結合aerobic exercise(有氧運動),并比較各選項,A項level(水平),B項love(熱愛),C項knowledge(知識)和D項space(空間),可知,A項符合原文語義,即,維持或提高有氧運動水平。本題答案為A項。

      20. 【答案】C(diet)

      【解析】邏輯關系題。and提示并列,借助exercise(鍛煉),并結合空格后high in fiber(高纖維)和eliminates highly processed foods(去除高度加工的食品),可知,C項diet(日常飲食)符合原文邏輯,即,兩種強烈推薦的生活方式分別為:維持或提高有氧運動水平,以及遵循高纖維、去除高度加工食品的地中海式飲食習慣。本題答案為C項。

      干擾選項:A項design(設計),B項routine(常規)和D項prescription(藥方),均不符合原文邏輯關系。

      Section II Reading Comprehension

      Part A

      Directions:

      Read the following four texts. Answer the questions after each text by choosing A, B, C or D. Mark your answers on the ANSWER SHEET. (40 points)

      Text 1

      How can the train operators possibly justify yet another increase to rail passenger fares? It has become a grimly reliable annual ritual: every January the cost of travelling by train rises, imposing a significant extra burden on those who have no option but to use the rail network to get to work or otherwise. This year’s rise, an average of 2.7 per cent, may be a fraction lower than last year’s, but it is still well above the official Consumer Price Index (CPI) measure of inflation.

      Successive governments have permitted such increases on the grounds that the cost of investing in and running the rail network should be borne by those who use it, rather than the general taxpayer. ...? Equally, there is a sense that the travails of commuters in the South East, many of whom will face among the biggest rises, have received too much attention compared to those who must endure the relatively poor infrastructure of the Midlands and the North.

      However, over the past 12 months, those commuters have also experienced some of the worst rail strikes in years. ...The responsibility for the latest wave of strikes rests on the unions. However, there is a strong case that those who have been worst affected by industrial action should receive compensation for the disruption they have suffered.

      The Government has pledged to change the law to introduce a minimum service requirement so that, even when strikes occur, ..., more investment is needed, but passengers will not be willing to pay more indefinitely if they must also endure cramped, unreliable services, punctuated by regular chaos when timetables are changed, or planned maintenance is managed incompetently. The threat of nationalisation may have been seen off for now, but it will return with a vengeance if the justified anger of passengers is not addressed in short order.

      21. The author holds that this year’s increase in rail passengers fares ______.

      A. will ease train operators’ burden

      B. has kept pace with inflation

      C. is a big surprise to commuters

      D. remains an unreasonable measure

      22. The stockbroker in Paragraph 2 is used to stand for ______.

      A. car drivers

      B. rail travellers

      C. local investors

      D. ordinary taxpayers

      23. It is indicated in Paragraph 3 that train operators ______.

      A. are offering compensation to commuters

      B. are trying to repair relations with the unions

      C. have failed to provide an adequate service

      D. have suffered huge losses owing to the strikes

      24. If unable to calm down passengers, the railways may have to face ______.

      A. the loss of investment

      B. the collapse of operations

      C. a reduction of revenue

      D. a change of ownership

      25. Which of the following would be the best title for the text?

      A. Who Are to Blame for the Strikes?

      B. Constant Complaining Doesn’t Work

      C. Can Nationalisation Bring Hope?

      D. Ever-Rising Fares Aren’t Sustainable

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